The strategy and tactics of harvesting in the Akmola region in 2018
Harvesting grain, leguminous and oilseeds is a crucial stage of agricultural production, which largely determines the financial condition of agricultural enterprises of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Only a clear organization of the harvesting campaign, taking into account weather conditions, biological characteristics and agricultural techniques of growing crops, their varietal composition, will allow harvesting in optimal and short terms, with minimal loss and cost.
2018 sowing campaign specifics
In 2018, in the Akmola region, the harvesting area is 4743.8 thousand ha, including 4313.5 thousand ha of grain and leguminous crops. At the same time, the area of the main food crop of spring wheat is 3697.9 thousand ha (85.7% of the area of grain and leguminous plants). The area of oilseeds is 258.4 thousand ha.
The weather conditions this spring brought some tension to the sowing campaign. Firstly, low reserves of productive moisture in the soil before sowing crops. Secondly, precipitation during the sowing period in the form of rain and snow significantly replenished the moisture reserves, but against the background of lower temperatures, weed germination and the timing of planting were delayed. Thirdly, there was some concern about obtaining normal seedlings due to low temperatures. In late spring, the sowing campaign period was significantly extended, and many farms finished sowing almost by mid-June. According to various estimates, the area of crops with late sowing periods is from 20 to 40%. But in the end it all ended happily — the moisture was enough, the seedlings were good and the weediness was mostly controlled. The future fate of the harvest will now largely depend on the weather and the operational decisions of business executives to protect it.
The crops of spring wheat, spring barley, oats, peas, lentils, oilseed flax, spring rape, sunflower, millet, millet, buckwheat and corn in the region as a whole can be considered good. So, 82% of wheat crops can be attributed to this category on average in the region, and in 100% in such regions as Akkolsky, Arshalynsky, Burabaysky, Yegindekolsky, Zharkaysky, Zerendinsky and Tselinogradsky. The highest bread-growing is observed in wheat crops in pairs, 30-40 cm higher than stubble predecessors. In Burabaysky, Zerendinsky and Sandyktausky districts, the height of wheat in pairs is 120-150cm. Variation of productivity by regions is expected at the level of 10-25 kg / ha.
Of the oilseeds, flax occupies a large area of crops, 74% of its crops are in good condition, basically a satisfactory situation with flax crops is observed only in Astrakhan, Bulandinsky and Korgalzhinsky districts. 86% of rape crops are in good condition. The condition of rapeseed crops is somewhat worse only in the Astrakhan and Bulandinsky areas. The largest share of oilseeds in the structure of sown areas in Zerendinsky district is 61.697 thousand ha and Burabaysky - 43.267 thousand ha. The forecasted yield of flax varies from 4-6ts / ha in the Shortandy, Astrakhan and Korgalzhinsky areas to 10-12ts / ha in the Burabay, Zerendinsky, Sandyktausky and Tselinograd regions.
Of the 54376 hectares of rapeseed in the region, 86% are in good condition, a satisfactory condition of all flax crops was noted in the Astrakhan and Bulandinsky districts.
For corn and sunflower, there was not enough heat in the first growing season, but the hot weather in August, precipitation and moisture reserves in the soil contribute to their active growth. The largest areas of sunflower sowing are located in Atbasar and Esilsky districts - 9418 and 8671 hectares.
In other areas from 600 to 2000 hectares. Almost all sunflower crops are in good condition and in the first ten days of August had a developmental phase the end of flowering - the beginning of filling. A certain delay in the sowing of both cereals and other crops is still noted in the more humid part of the Akmola region — Sandyktausky, Schuchinsky, Zerendinsky, the northern part of the Bulandinsky and north-eastern parts of the Enbekshilder districts. Here, first of all, we need to talk about reducing the sowing area of medium-late varieties of wheat and increasing the proportion of medium-early to 50-70%. Also in this region, it is necessary to constantly apply phosphorus fertilizers, this is a guarantee not only of high productivity, but also the production of high-quality grain.
Harvest Campaign Challenges
Due to the length of the sowing time, moistening conditions, temperature factor and the onset of the main phases of plant development, uneven in regions, which will naturally affect the ripening of crops. Heavy rainfall and a significant drop in temperature at the end of the second decade of August can significantly complicate not only the harvesting process in terms of weed growth and slowing ripening, but also deterioration of grain quality. It can be predicted that wheat ripening in the northern regions of the region will also be long.
Roughly harvesting in the conditions of 2018 should begin from August 18-20. In those farms that used phosphoric fertilizers (ammophos) when sowing or sowed on backgrounds with good phosphorus nutrition, ripening is 6-8 days faster than unfertilized crops and crops look more powerful and less damaged by diseases. Farms with varieties of different ripeness groups are also noticeably distinguished — mid-ripening and mid-early seeding dates in the third decade of May, and where a good grain yield is expected.
This year, there was no large-scale development of brown and stem rust on spring wheat, as was observed in 2017. Septoria was the main problem, but the timely use of fungicides helped to reduce the harmfulness of this disease.
And all crop ripening sharply increases at all sowing dates, despite the lack of heat in May and June and the delay with sowing dates. Therefore, crops before May 15-16 will be ready for harvesting by the end of the second - beginning of the third decade of August, crops from May 20 to May 25 - at the end of the third decade of August, crops from May 25 to May 31 and later - in the first decade of September.
The choice of harvesting method - direct or separate, will be determined in each case separately, depending on maturation, plant density, weediness and other factors. The combination of a separate and direct method of cleaning will be the main method of cleaning in most of the fields in the region. Separate combine harvesting should be used on seed crops and in fields littered with wormwood, sow thistles and other late weeds.
Due to the late rainfall in some fields, a fit is formed and weediness is growing. In this case, on crops littered with perennial weeds and having sprinkling, it is better to treat with desiccants, then to conduct direct combine harvesting, which will reduce crop losses due to separate harvesting.
On commodity crops, desiccation by glyphosate-containing preparations is effective in the dough-like phase - the beginning of wax ripeness on wheat or when drilling 30-40% of the fruits of oilseeds and legumes. In addition to desiccation of cultivated plants, perennial weeds (up to 85-95%) are more effectively suppressed in comparison with pre-sowing chemical treatment (up to 40-50%). Desiccation can be carried out until mid-September, in the future, the average daily temperature drops and the processing efficiency decreases.
Regular monitoring of crops is necessary, and at the end of August a determination of the state of their moisture supply is necessary in order to correctly and competently draw up a technology for timely and lossless harvesting.
The correct determination of the harvesting time for corn silage is a decisive condition for the production of high-quality silage. The ripeness of corn for silage is achieved when the starch accumulation in the grain is completed, the dry matter content in the grain is more than 60%, on the cob - more than 55%, in the whole plant - 28-35% i.e. with waxy ripeness. With normal development of corn plants, the proportion of ears is more than 50%. Corn is susceptible to frost. In the phase of wax ripeness, it tolerates frosts to -4C. Frozen corn for silage needs to be removed within five days, since when positive temperatures occur, the plants are quickly affected by fungi and bacteria, the leaves dry, the plants rot and break, which leads to large losses.
With a thought on the future harvest
When harvesting bread, one must also remember the future harvest, therefore, with the prevailing grain growth by steam fields and a stubble background, it is recommended to choose the cut height depending on the actual condition of the bread. Straw needs to be crushed and scattered in the field to preserve soil moisture.
This year almost everywhere favorable conditions for mechanical tillage are taking shape. In all areas, two or more steam treatments have already been carried out with the aim of cutting weeds. In order to increase the efficiency of the steam field, it is necessary to process it in August and September. The last, fourth treatment of steam should be deep at 25-27cm. In the event of the September rains fall, autumn flat-cutting cultivation or 25-27 cm sowing should be carried out, where autumn processing was not carried out for 3-4 years.
Also, one cannot ignore the question of the autumn application of mineral fertilizers, which mainly concerns the replenishment of nitrogen nutrition. Nitrate is applied superficially under plane-cutting treatment or without soil treatment. With surface application without further processing, the application period should be later, with a daily temperature transition below + 10 degrees. Also, the autumn application of nitrogen fertilizer is also possible with seeders, cultivators or sowing complexes with a seeding depth of 5-10 cm. In the same way, autumn application of phosphoric and complex fertilizers is possible in the widest range of doses.
Therefore, only a high organization of harvesting and post-harvesting operations in all farms of the region can become the basis for obtaining higher productivity and high-quality grain.Abdullaev K.K., acting CEO
SPCGF named after A.I. Barayev
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